尽管蜱通常被认为是昆虫, 它们实际上是类似于蝎子的蛛形纲动物, 蜘蛛和螨虫. 所有的蜱虫成年时都有四对腿，没有触角. 相比之下，成年昆虫有三对腿和一对触角. 蜱虫 are among the most efficient carriers of disease because they attach firmly when sucking blood, 进食缓慢，进食时可能会在很长一段时间内不被发现. 蜱虫需要几天时间才能完全进食.
雄性硬蜱通常与一个或多个雌性交配，然后死亡, 虽然有些人可以活几个月. Females die soon after depositing their eggs in protected habitats on the ground. The life cycle requires from as little as 2 months to more than 2 years, depending on the species.
After the egg hatches, the tiny larva (sometimes called a “seed tick”) feeds on an appropriate host. 幼虫然后发育成更大的若虫. 若虫以寄主为食，然后蜕皮成更大的成虫. Both male and female adults find and feed on a host, and then the females lay eggs after feeding.
蜱虫在草丛和灌木丛的顶端等待宿主动物. 蜱在树上并不常见. 被移动的动物或人刷过, 它们迅速放开植物，爬到宿主身上. 蜱虫 can only crawl; they cannot fly or jump. 一些种类的蜱虫会向宿主爬行几英尺. 蜱虫 can be active on winter days if the ground temperatures are above 45 degrees Fahrenheit (7.2摄氏度).
有两种蜱虫, 有时被称为“硬”蜱虫(硬蜱科)和“软”蜱虫(硬蜱科). 硬蜱虫, 就像普通的dogs一样, have a hard shield just behind the mouthparts (sometimes incorrectly called the “head”); unfed hard ticks are shaped like a flat seed. 柔软的蜱没有坚硬的盾，它们的形状像一个大葡萄干. Soft ticks prefer to feed on birds or bats and are seldom encountered by dogs or cats.
在不同地区可能会遇到其他种类的蜱虫. Your veterinarian will consult with you if you needadditional information of specific species.
美国的蜱虫会攻击各种各样的宿主, 包括人类和dogs, 但很少寄生于家庭. 成虫为栗色，背上有白色斑点或条纹. 未被喂养的成年人大约1/8英寸长. 充血的雌性会变成板岩灰色，可能会扩展到1/2英寸长. 幼虫和若虫主要以小型啮齿动物为食, 而成年人吃dogs, 牛, 其他动物和人类. These ticks are widely distributed throughout the North America and are especially prevalent in the southern United States and in coastal and other humid areas. 他们被动物的气味所吸引, 人类最常在公路附近遇到它们, 路径, 小径及康乐区. Although present the year round, 美国dogs蜱虫s are usually most numerous in the spring.
雌蜱虫产下4000-6500个卵，然后死亡. 虫卵在大约36-57天内孵化成蜱种. The unfed larvae crawl in search of a host and can live up to 540 days without food. When they find a small rodent or mammal, the larvae attach and feed for approximately five days. 然后幼虫离开寄主蜕皮进入若虫期. 若虫爬行寻找啮齿动物宿主, 连接到一个合适的主机, 在3-11天内充血. 若虫在没有食物的情况下可以存活584天. 这已经超过一年半了!
成年人爬行寻找dogs或大型动物的血餐. 成年人在没有食物的情况下可以活两年! 成年的美国dogs蜱和许多其他物种可以在路边找到, 路径, 和轨迹, 在草地上, 和其他低植被在“等待位置”.” As an animal passes by, the tick will grasp it firmly and soon start feeding. The males remain on the host for an indefinite period of time alternately feeding and mating. 雌鸟觅食、交配、填饱肚子，然后下蛋.
The 美国dogs蜱虫 requires from three months to three years to complete a life cycle. It is typically an outdoor tick and is dependent on climatic and environmental conditions for its eggs to hatch.
成年孤星蜱呈深浅不一的棕色或棕褐色. Females have single silvery-white spots on their backs and males have scattered white spots. Unfed adults are about 1/3-inch long, but after feeding females may be 1/2-inch long. 幼虫和若虫寄生于小型野生动物, 鸟类和啮齿类动物, 而成年人则以更大的动物如dogs和牛为食. 孤星蜱的所有三个阶段都会咬dogs和人. These ticks live in wooded and brushy areas and are most numerous in underbrush along creeks and river bottoms and near animal resting places. 孤星蜱一年四季都有, 但成虫和若虫数量的高峰期可能出现在3月至5月. 第二个蛹期高峰可能在7月或8月再次出现, 而幼虫活动高峰则在六月中旬或七月.
All three active stages of the deer or blacklegged tick will feed on a variety of hosts including dogs and people. 在春天蛋孵化之后, the very tiny larvae feed primarily on white-footed mice or other small mammals. 第二年春天, 幼虫蜕皮成针尖大小, 以老鼠为食的棕色若虫, 更大的温血动物和人类. 在秋天, 它们蜕皮成鹿，主要以鹿为食, 雌性在第二年春天产卵. 成人s are reddish-brown and about 1/8-inch long (or about one-half the size of the more familiar female 美国dogs蜱虫).
这些蜱虫通常生活在小径两旁的树林里. The larvae and nymphs are active in the spring and early summer; adults may be active in both the spring and fall. The deer or blacklegged tick can transmit Lyme disease and possibly ehrlichiosis to dogs and humans.
The brown dog tick (also known as the kennel tick) is found through most of the United States. 这种蜱虫以dogs为食，但很少咬人. Unlike the other species of ticks, its life cycle allows it to survive and develop indoors. The brown dog tick is found primarily in kennels or homes with dogs where it may be found hiding in cracks, 背后的散热器, 在地毯和家具下面, 还有窗帘和墙上.
成虫是红棕色的，大约1/8英寸长, 通常贴在dogs的耳朵周围或脚趾之间喂食. 哺乳期后，雌鱼可以吃到1 / 2英寸长. She then drops off the dog and crawls into a hiding place where she may lay as many as 3,000 eggs. This tick is tropical in origin and does not survive long, cold winters outdoors.
There are many different types of tick preventatives available in the marketplace. 有些需要业主付出的努力要比其他的少. 有些产品可以在柜台买到, 而其他的只能通过你的兽医获得. There are effective monthly preventatives that are applied to the skin at the back of the neck and represent a convenient method of control for these ectoparasites. Your veterinarian will make specific recommendations to keep your pet parasite free.
用纸巾或纸巾. Infectious agents may be contracted through mucous membranes or breaks in the skin simply by handling infected ticks. This is especially important for people who “de-tick” pets because ticks infesting dogs and other domestic animals can carry Lyme disease, 埃立克体病或其他能感染人类的疾病.
用稳定、均匀的压力将扁虱直接拉出. Do not twist or jerk the tick as this may cause the mouthparts to break off and remain in the skin, 增加感染的机会. Continue applying steady pressure even if the tick does not release immediately. It may take a minute or two of constant, slow pulling to cause the tick to release.
After removing the tick, thoroughly disinfect the bite area and wash your hands with soap and water. 家庭疗法，如凡士林, 油脂, 或热匹配后面的tick是不建议和不工作. These practices cause the tick to salivate and can actually increase the chance of getting a disease.
去除蜱虫后，你可能希望用外用酒精保存它. Be sure to label the container with information about the time and place where the tick bite occurred. This activity will help you to remember details of the incident if the rash or other symptoms associated with Lyme disease appear later. This information will also be of help to a veterinarian or physician diagnosing an illness.
This client information sheet is based on material written by Ernest Ward, DVM.
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