癣、脚癣

这是什么样的感染?

Ringworm is the common name for the skin infection caused by a special group of fungi; it is not caused by a worm at all. 真菌以皮肤和头发的死细胞为食, 在人们, 一个经典的圆, red lesion with a ring of scale around the edges and normal recovering skin in the center. Because the ring of irritated, itchy skin looked like a worm, the infection was erroneously named. 这种真菌被称为皮肤真菌, meaning plants that live on the skin; thus the more correct term for ringworm is dermatophytosis. 特征环的出现主要是一种人类现象. 在动物身上, 癣经常看起来像干燥的, 灰色, scaly patch but can also mimic any other skin lesion and have any appearance.
 

我的宠物会感染这种病毒吗?

The spores of dermatophyte fungi are extremely hardy in the environment; they can live for years. 只要皮肤接触到孢子就会引起感染. Infected animals are continuously dropping spore-covered hairs as infected hairs break off into the environment. 有些动物是携带者, who never show signs of skin irritation themselves but can infect others readily. 皮肤植物真菌有几种. 不同种类的真菌来自不同种类的动物,甚至来自不同的土壤,因此确定癣菌的种类有助于确定真菌感染的来源.
 

我会被感染吗?

Yes, ringworm is contagious to people; however, some people are at greater risk than others. The fungus takes advantage of skin belonging to those with reduced immune capacity. 这就把年幼的动物和儿童, 老年人与宠物, hiv阳性的人, 正在接受化疗或输血或器官移植后正在服药的人,以及高度紧张的高危人群和动物. 在一般情况下, 如果你没有已经有癣时,你的宠物被诊断, 你可能不会得到它.
 

医生怎么知道这真的是癣?

在某些情况下, we know for sure that dermatophyte fungi are present while in other cases we are only highly suspicious. Lesions on animal skin are rarely the classic ring-shaped as 在人们 (in fact, 在动物身上, 病变往往甚至不痒)因此一些测试通常是必要的.

1. 木头的光

Microsporum犬属, 最常见的癣菌, 大约50%的病例会有苹果绿荧光. Fluorescence is an easy test to perform and may provide a strong clue that dermatophytes are present. Further testing is usually needed, however, to absolutely confirm diagnosis.

2. 显微镜bet356平台

你的兽医可能希望bet356平台一些毛发是否有微小孢子. If spores can be seen on damaged hairs then the diagnosis of ringworm is confirmed; however, 因为孢子很难被发现, 许多兽医跳过这一步.

3. 真菌文化

在这里, 一些毛发和皮肤鳞片被放置在一个特殊的培养基上,试图培养一种癣真菌. 这项测试的优势在于,它不仅可以确认癣菌,还可以准确地分辨出存在哪种真菌. Knowing the identity of the fungus may help determine the source of infection. The disadvantage, however, is that fungi require at least 10 days to grow out.

Also, this is the only test that is helpful in determining if animal is an asymptomatic carrier. 其他的测试需要明显的皮肤损伤来测试. 没有明显损伤的宠物可以梳理它的整个身体,被去除的皮毛和皮肤可以进行培养. 携带动物通常是与其他几只cats生活在一起的cats.

4. 活组织bet356平台

Sometimes the lesions on the skin are so uncharacteristic that a skin biopsy is necessary to obtain a diagnosis. Fungal spores are quite clear in these samples and the diagnosis may be ruled in or out. 癣cats癣的皮肤活检. 洋红色的“斑点”代表皮肤中实际生长的真菌. 取决于初步测试的结果, 你的兽医可能会立即开始癣治疗或推迟到更明确的结果可用.
 

治疗

承诺是成功的关键,尤其是当你有不止一只宠物的时候. 被感染的动物不断向环境(你的房子)散发孢子,因此消毒和治疗受感染的宠物一样重要.
 

被感染宠物的口服药物

治疗癣主要有两种药物, 灰黄霉素和伊曲康唑(商标:Sporonox). 兽医皮肤科医生不同意哪种更好. 这两种药物都比较贵, 必须与食物一起给予, 并有可能导致怀孕宠物的出生缺陷.

两种药物的治疗通常持续1到2个月,不应该停止,直到宠物培养阴性. Stopping when the pet simply looks well visually frequently leads to recurrence of the disease.

灰黄霉素(品牌Fulvicin)
This medication must be given with a fatty meal in order for an effective dose to be absorbed by the pet. 波斯cats和小cats咪对它的副作用很敏感,这些副作用通常仅限于恶心,但可能包括肝病和严重的白细胞变化. 感染了cats免疫缺陷病毒(FIV)的cats通常会发生危及生命的血细胞变化,永远不应该接触这种药物. 尽管有副作用, 这对某些人来说可能很严重, 灰黄霉素仍然是治疗癣的传统药物,通常比伊曲康唑便宜一些.

伊曲康唑
这种药物在治疗癣非常有效,但可以在胶囊太大,对大多数小动物有用. This means that a special company must reformulated the medication into a more useful size. 恶心是这种药物的一个潜在副作用,但可能它被忽视的主要原因是费用. 伊曲康唑对许多危及生命的真菌感染也有效,而灰黄霉素只治疗癣.

通过增加环境中伊曲康唑的含量, we may be creating resistance in more dangerous fungi which could become a problem over the years. 平均, 用伊曲康唑治疗的cats,没有什么能比用灰黄霉素治疗的cats更早治愈两周.

受感染宠物的局部治疗

Both the above medications work by inhibiting fungal reproduction rather than by directly killing the fungus. This is fine from the pet’s perspective as either medication should be able to clear the fungus without further therapy; however, bet356唯一官网登录还希望减少环境污染. 这意味着杀死宠物身上的真菌,这样掉下来的毛发就不会传染,杀死宠物身上的真菌意味着局部治疗. For many years cats with ringworm lesions were shaved to allow for easier topical treatment. bet356唯一官网登录现在知道刮胡子可能会传播真菌, 因此,并不总是建议剃须(取决于家里cats的数量和毛发的长度).

石灰硫磺泡

Dips are recommended twice a week and can be performed either by the hospital or at home. 如果你在家里尝试这样的浸浴, 你应该预料到:酸硫会染污衣服和珠宝。酸硫会导致白色皮毛暂时变黄。酸硫有强烈的臭鸡蛋味.

The dip is mixed according the the label and is not rinsed off at the end of the bath. 宠物应该用毛巾擦干. 没有必要洗头.
 

环境处理

The problem with decontaminating the environment is that very few products are effective. Bleach diluted 1:10 will kill 80% of fungal spores with one application and any surface that can be bleached, 应该是漂白. Vigorous vacuuming and steam cleaning of carpets will help remove spores and, 当然, 真空袋应该丢弃. 减少环境污染, infected cats should be confined to one room until they have cultured negative. 在这段禁闭期间,房子的其他部分可以消毒. 在治疗过程中每月进行培养.

以下是威斯康辛大学兽医学院皮肤病系对环境消毒的具体建议. 这种清洁方案应用于受感染者居住的房间:来自受感染者的头发和皮肤颗粒实际上形成了房子周围的灰尘和污垢,是再次感染的基础. The single most important aspect of environmental disinfection is vacuuming.

目标区域应保持良好的吸力至少10分钟,硬表面应使用快速清扫器或类似产品进行清洁. (许多人喜欢使用便宜的吸尘器,比如“脏魔鬼”吸尘器,癣发作后就可以扔掉了。). 受感染的动物应被限制在一个房间里. Areas that have been contaminated should be cleaned with soap and water and rinsed with water. 这个过程执行三次,每周至少三次.

对于地毯,可以使用蒸汽清洁器. 蒸汽的温度不足以杀死癣菌的孢子,但应该有助于清洁污垢和清除污染颗粒. 用肥皂和水进行三次清洗后, a 1:10 solution of bleach should be used on surfaces which are bleachable. The surface should stay wet for a total of 10 minutes to kill the ringworm spores. 漂白剂在有污垢的情况下不会杀死孢子,所以在漂白剂被漂白之前,对表面进行适当的清洁是很重要的.

确定一个区域是否已被适当消毒, the following process can be used: A piece of Swiffer cloth is used on the area to be tested, 擦拭5分钟或直到擦拭布弄脏为止. Place the Swiffer cloth in a plastic bag and bring to your vet’s office for culturing.

一旦cats的培养呈阴性,就被移出被污染的房间, 应在1至3次清洗中实现去污.

The ringworm fungus can remain infective in the environment up to 18 months.
 

确定运营商

When there is a pet with ringworm in the home, all other pets should be tested. 癣的载体是感染但不显示病变(通常这是宠物,一直在治疗,出现视觉被治愈,但事实上仍然感染)或只是携带真菌在其皮毛以同样的方式一个无生命的对象可能真菌孢子表面. Both types of “carriers” must be identified as they are both capable of spreading the infection.

The MacKenzie Toothbrush Test is the best approach to the pet with no obvious lesions.

根据威斯康辛大学的规定, 无论培养结果如何,应假定这些动物已被感染,并应每周两次在石灰硫中浸泡三周. 如果这些动物身上的培养呈阳性, oral medication should be initiated and they should have full body clips (i.e. 他们应该用10号剃刀把头发剃光).
 

癣会自己消失吗?

There have been several studies that showed that this fungal infection should eventually resolve on its own. 通常, 这需要4个月, a long time in a home environment for contamination to be occurring continuously. We recommend treatment for this infection rather than waiting for it to go away.
 

What To Change if the Outbreak Seems to Go on Forever (Like Over 100 Days)

After a couple of months of medication and dipping, the outbreak is generally over. 如果疫情仍在加剧的话, 那么是时候寻找可能被剪掉的角落和程序中需要修补的漏洞了:如果宠物没有被剃毛, 这可能是做全身刮胡的时候了. 如果用视觉损伤作为治疗的终点, 改变真菌培养为标准是很重要的. Dipping is labor intensive and people tend not to do it twice a week as is optimal.

Twice a week dipping should be instituted if there is trouble eradicating the infection. 必须对环境进行适当的净化,这不仅包括识别受感染的宠物,还包括隔离宠物. 如果受感染的宠物不受限制, 它们会污染环境并不断被感染. 考虑宠物的免疫系统是否有缺陷. If a second disease is present, it must be controlled if the pet is to recover. 普通伊曲康唑的生物利用度与品牌名不同. 简而言之,这意味着它不能很好地工作. 换一个品牌名称可能会有很大的不同. 最后, 重要的是要考虑到,如果仅用可视化来诊断,诊断可能是错误的. Proper testing as outlined above is crucial to the diagnosis of dermatophytosis

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